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ROMA MÜZELERİ & ÖREN YERLERİ . 1   ( ingilizce )


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Museums   walkabout  ( ROMA )



The Forum Romanum is situated in the valley between the Palatine Hill and the Capitol and consists of an almost trapezoid-shaped square that stands between the Regia and the Rostra on the short sides and the Basilica Aemilia and the Basilica Julia on the long ones. An extension of the northern part is represented by the Comitium. The squarewas conceived as a place for commercial exchanges and political and judicial activities, situated in a point where important roads (Via Sacra, Vicus Tuscus, Vicus Iugarius, Clivus Capitolinus, and Argiletum) converged.

Originally the zone was partly marshy and used as a cemetery starting from about the tenth century BC, as testified by tombs discovered in 1902 in the burial ground. Ruins of huts and ceramic material found next to the archaic burial ground lead to think that dwelling places were disseminated there already in the second half of the eighth century. The most ancient monuments of sacred character, attributed by tradition to the first kings of Rome, date back to the second half of the sixth century BC. The temple of Saturn and the temple of the Dioscuri were built at the beginning of the Republic (509 BC). The first tribune for speakers situated between the Forum and the Comitium probably dates back to the fifth century BC. Four basilicas intended for the administration of justice and the conduction of business were built in the second century BC. The Forum was submitted to further changes under Caesar and later Augustus.

The travertine floor that is still visible dates back to the Augustan Age. Many honorary monuments were erected in the area of the Forum in the Imperial Age; the last of which is the column dedicated in 608 AD to emperor Foca. The Forum was then abandoned and filled in by a thick layer of earth, becoming a pasture known as Campus Vaccinus. Some temples were transformed into churches, allowing their preservation in the course of time. During the Renaissance the area of the Forum Romanum was used as a marble and stone quarry.

Arch of Titus - This arch was erected in 81 AD by emperor Domitian in memory ofhis brother Titus to celebrate his victories against the Judaeans. Decorated with Greek marble slabs, the monument has a single opening flanked by four semicolumns with capitals.

Basilica of Maxentius - This basilica was built between 306 and 312 AD by emperor Maxentius and completed by emperor Justinian. Originally five wide passageways led to a huge hall consisting of a nave and two aisles separated by marble columns. The only column that survived was removed in 1613 and placed in front of the Basilica of St. Mary Major. In the apsis of the central nave Constantine erected a gigantic statue of himself with arms, legs and head made of white marble and the rest of gilded bronze. The head and one foot are exposed in the Capitoline Museums.

Temple of Venus and Rome - This temple was built in 135 AD by emperor Hadrian who probably also designed it and then completed by emperor Antoninus Pius. Rich in columns, it occupied an area of 330 by 480 feet and enclosed two cells that were rebuilt by Maxentius in 310 AD after a fire. Balnea - This is a complex of small thermae situated near the Temple of Heliogabalus and Vigna Barberini, just off Via Sacra. Temple so-called of Romolus - This building was once considered a temple dedicated to the memory of Romolus, the son of emperor Maxentius who died very young in 309 AD and was deified by his father. Today it is indicated as theTemple of Jupiter Stator.

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina - This temple was built in 141 AD by Antoninus Pius in honor of his dead wife Faustina and after the death of the emperor itwas dedicated also to his memory. It stands on a high podium preceded by stands (rebuilt with bricks) at the center of which are the ruins of the altar. The atrium consists of ten marble columns. The cell was consecrated as the Church of San Lorenzo in Miranda in the eleventh century.

Temple of Caesar (of of Divine Julius) - This temple was built by emperor Augustus in the place where Julius Caesar’s body was burned and where Marcus Antonius pronounced his famous funeral oration. Only a few ruins remain, including a round altar that was probably built in the place where the funeral pire was arranged.

Regia - Attributed by tradition to king Numa Pompilius and probably a residence of the Tarquinii. In the Republican Age the Rex Sacrorum, the Pontifex Maximus and the other Priests performed their duties here. The Regia was destroyed by a fire in 64 AD and rebuilt on its original design in 36 AD by Domitius Calvus to demonstrate its sacredness.
Round Temple of Vesta - This building was built as the "hut of the sacred fire " probably with wood, straw and wickers and reconstructed in 191 AD by Julia Domna, wife of emperor Septimius Severus. It had a circular plant and was covered by a roof with a hole on the top to let out the smoke of the sacred fire. It was encircled by twenty columns, three of which remain today.
Here were kept the sacred objects bound with the fortunes of Rome, which by tradition Aeneas had brought from Troy.

Temple of the Castores (or Dioscuri) - Dedicated to the cult of Castor and Pollux, this temple was inaugurated in 484 AD and restored several times. The facade faced the Forum and the temple consisted of nineteen columns (three of which remain today). In this building where the Senate once met, weights and measurements were controlled. Bankers, exchangers and barbers had shops at the foot of the podium, among the plinths of the columns.

Basilica Julia - This basilica was built by Julius Caesar in 54 BC on the site of the Basilica Sempronia after its destruction and then dedicated to him. It was completed later by emperor Augustus. It was rebuilt after a fire in the year 2 BC and restored for the last time in 416 AD. The Basilica consisted of a two-story building with a nave and four aisles and a huge central hall. It hosted the four sections of the Roman Court of Assizes held by 105 judges, called the Centumviri.

Santa Maria Antiqua and the Domitian Buildings - This complex constitutes the link between the Forum and the Palatine Hill. It consists of a huge hall of Domitian’s Age, “tabernae” of Hadrian’s Age and another uncovered square room from which three entrances lead to a hall formed by a central room with a quadriportico and three rooms behind it. This last part was transformed into the church of Santa Maria Antiqua in the sixth century AD.

Horrea Agrippiana - This work is dated back to the Augustan Age and consists of a square two-story monumental tuff building with wide rooms that face a huge courtyard with porticoes and other smaller rooms. It was built by Agrippa to beused as storerooms (horrea), as commemorated by an inscription that can still be seen in one of the central rooms.

Basilica Aemilia - This is the only Republican Basilica to survive. It was built in 179 BC by the censors Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Marcus Fulvius Nobilior. It was initially called Fulvia or Fulvia Aemilia and was restored several times by members of the Aemilia Gens, from which it took its definitive name. The facade consisted of a two-story portico with sixteen arches on pillars with semicolumns. Behind the portico were the shops, from which three arched entrances (the one that is complete is of the modern age) led to a majestic hall divided in naves by marble columns. The plaster cast of a tract of the frieze that decorated the trabeation with scenes of the legendary origin of Rome is placed next to the outer wall. The ruins of the more ancient Basilica are still visible on the western side.

Curia - By tradition this building was founded by king Tullius Ostilius and rebuilt in 80 BC by Silla. It was moved from its original site to its current position by Caesar. It was completed by Augustus in 29 BC and restored by Domitian in 94 AD. It was last redone by Diocletian around 283 AD. The facade presents three large windows and a monumental door whose wings are a copy of the original ones moved in 1660 to the Basilica of St. John Lateran.
Arch of Septimius Severus - This arch was erected at the foot of the Capitol in 203 AD, on the tenth anniversary of the ascent of emperor Septimius Severus to the throne and dedicated by him to his son Caracalla. The two facades are encircled by a high attic (originally surmounted by a quadriga with the emperorand his son), inside which are four rooms that can be accessed through a staircase. On the two sides of the attic there is a large inscription with a dedication to Septimius Severus and Caracalla. Scenes of the two campaigns against the Partii are represented on the panels above the smaller arches.

Portico of the Consenting Gods - This building consists of eight rooms placed side by side and preceded by a portico with twelve columns and Corinthian capitals. The statues of the most important Gods of the Greek and Roman pantheon were probably situated in some of the rooms. The building dates back to the Flavian Age and was restored in 367 AD.
Rostra - The semicircular stands used as a tribune for the orators were decorated with the rostra, the bronzer ams removed from the ships after the victorious battle of Antium (338 BC). They were moved here from the area of the Comitium during the the demolitions made by Caesar and inaugurated in 44 BC, shortly before his death. The building today consists of part of the semicircular stands at the entrance, some ruins of the interior and the facade. On the northern side there is a brick addition that dates back to 470 AD.

Temple of Saturn - This temple was started around the end of the Royal Age and was inaugurated between 498 and 497 BC and entirely rebuilt in 42 BC. A forepart leaned on the front of the facade (all that remains is the threshold of the door that opened towards the Forum) where the State Public Treasure was kept.
Temple of Vespasianus and Titus - All that remains of this temple are three columns on the north-eastern side. The staircase leading to the entrance and part of the podium date back to the nineteenth century. Emperor Titus started the construction of the temple in honor of his father Vespasianus, but died before it was completed. His brother the emperor Domitian completed the works of the temple and dedicated it to Vespasianus and Titus.

Column of Foca - This is the last monument of the Forum Romanum. The column was dedicated in 608 AD to Nicephorus Foca, the Byzantine emperor who donated the Pantheon to Pope Boniface the Sixth. The Column is more ancient in origin (it dates back to the second century AD) and is surmounted by a Corinthian capital.
Via Sacra - This Via (Sacred Road) was the path followed by the victorious leader (dux) through the Forum towards the Capitol. It was called Sacra because according to the legend it was covered by Romolus and Titus Tatius after entering the pact of alliance at the end of the war between the Romans and the Sabines. Solemn religious ceremonies with sacrifices were held there every month.

Address: Via della Salara Vecchia, 5/6

Opening hours from 8.30 am to one hour before sunset:

8:30am-4:30pm from January 2 to February 15

8:30am-5pm from February 16 to March 15

8:30am-5:30pm from March 16 to 24

8:30am-7:15pm from last Sunday of March to August 31

8:30am-7pm from September 1 to September 30

8:30am-6:30pm from October 1 to last Saturday of October

8:30am-4:30pm to last Sunday of October to December 31

Closed January 1, December 25

Notes: The ticket office closes one hour before closing time.

Price:Full: € 9.00 Reduced: € 4.50 free unde 18 and over 65 years old UE

Telephone: 0039 06 699841 - 06 39967700


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The emperors of the Flavia family built this large amphitheater for gladiatorial shows and hunts of wild animals, which in the following centuries became the symbol of the Eternal City. The building, called Colosseum starting from the Middle Ages perhaps due to the vicinity of an enormous statue of Nero (Colossus), rose on the area covered by the artificial lake of the Domus Aurea.

The works started under Vespasian and were terminated in the year 80 A.D. by Titus that promoted a magnificent inauguration with games that lasted apparently one hundred days, during which five thousand beasts were killed. The construction was completed under Domitian (81-96).
The building has an elliptical plan and consists externally of a triple series of eighty travertine arches lined by Tuscanic semicolons in the first order, Ionic in the second and Corinthian in the third. We can still see on the top the shelves and the holes for the poles that sustained the large curtain that protected the spectators from the sun and the rain. Instead the numerous holes visible all over the outside surface were made during the Middle Ages with the purpose of recuperating the metal plates that kept the stone blocks together.
The arches on the ground floor gave access to the steps and stands for the public. Above the arches the Roman numbers that indicated the various sectors of the cavea are still visible.

Only the main entrances, situated in correspondence of the main axes, were not numbered because reserved to privileged categories: magistrates, vestals, religious colleges, etc.. The northern entrance lead to the tribune reserved to the Emperor.
The underground basements where used to keep the machinery and the cages for the beasts, or as storage and service rooms. They are still visible today at the center of the amphitheater, but were originally covered with wooden boards that formed the surface of the arena. Four corridors located under the main entrances connected the basements with the outside: one led to the Ludus Magnus, the main barracks of the gladiators.

The shows were free of charge and the seats were assigned according to the class of belonging: some stands in the lower sector that were reserved to the senators bear inscriptions with the names of 195 personalities of the senatorial order belonging to the period of Odoacer (476-483). The gladiatorial games were definitively forbidden by Valentinian the Third after the year 438 A.D., while the shows with hunts of wild beasts continued until 523.

In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was transformed into a fortress that belonged firstly to the Frangipane and then to the Annibaldi family. After becoming a quarry of construction material and being unceasingly dispoliated for centuries, in 1749 it was consecrated by Benedict the Fourteenth to the Passion of Jesus and "reutilized" as a monumental Via Crucis.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century the first interventions to statically reinforce the structure were performed and the large brick walls that still retain what remains of the external perimeter were built.


Address: Piazza del Colosseo

Opening hours:

8:30am-4:30pm from January 2 to February 15

8:30am-5pm from February 16 to March 15

8:30am-5:30pm from March 16 to 24

8:30am-7:15pm from last Sunday of March to August 31

8:30am-7pm from September 1 to September 30

8:30am-6:30pm from October 1 to last Saturday of October

8:30am-4:30pm to last Sunday of October to December 31

Closed January 1, December 25

Notes: The ticket office closes one hour before closing time.

Price: Full € 12.00 Reduced € 7.50

free unde 18 and over 65 years old UE

ROMA PASS: 25 euro



It was conceived as the self-celebration of the rise of a papal family. The huge complex of Palazzo Barberini was established by the Florentine Pope Urban VIII. In 1625, two years after his nomination, Pope Urban VIII took advantage of the financial difficulties of the Sforza di Santa family and acquired their estate located between the Quattro Fontane and Pia (today XX Settembre) streets and the related magnificently ecorated buildings in order to carry out the project of a palace-villa able to compete with the luxurious dwellings of the Roman nobility.

Themansion was in fact appropriate for the twofold functions of “villa of the delights” opened on the green belt surrounding the ancient inhabited area and city palace. The mansion originally overlooked Piazza Barberini. The qualities which were already intrinsic to the Palazzo Sforza, were reinforced by the new project which refused the traditional model of the city-palace with a quadrangular plan and courtyard, instead the project of the architect Maderno was based on an H-shaped open plan with two parallel wings joined by a central septum with arcade entrance and false upper open gallery. The work of Bernini is mostly concentrated in this connecting body which is the official and public part of the palace common to both residential wings. Bernini became the head of the work being done after the death of Maderno in 1629. Bernini was assisted by Borromini, who was the grandson of Maderno and had already been working on the construction site.

Some of the most notable structures of the palace are tied to these two names such as, the ovoid staircase of the right wing by Borromini, which echos the similar wide staircase of the Palazzo Farnese in Caprarola; the monumental staircase with a quadrangular plan projected by Bernini beside the oval hall and the impressive double height hall where Pietro da Cortona would paint the famous fresco “The Triumph of the Divine Providence”, an allegorical celebration of the glories of the Barberini dynasty, between 1633 and 1639.
The palace was acquired by the Italian State in 1949 and, in spite of the difficult cohabitation with other institutions which were already tenants of the Barberini, the state decided that it would be the location of the National Gallery of Ancient Art which had already been established in 1895 but had never been set up.

The museum was closely tied to the other collection located in Palazzo Corsini, therefore the Gallery was initially divided in accordance with a chronological criterion that assigned the more ancient works (until end of Seventeenth century) to Palazzo Barberini and the more recent ones to Palazzo Corsini: such a rigid division was finally discarded with the 1984 reorganisation of both museums. Justice was finally rendered to the Corsini collection on that occasion, it was re-assembled and brought back to its historical site.
Instead, Palazzo Barberini would host, in accordance with chronological criteria, the various works acquired by the State either by purchase on the market or as bequests and donations which came from various collections which were otherwise dispersed. The same remarkable Barberini collection is now reduced to a minor portion of the original acquired by the State in 1934, because of a law which, gave the family back part of the collection in exchange for the right to have possession of the remaining part.

The pieces returned to the family was incredibly dispersed. The current property of the museum, without taking into account the so-called “third gallery” constituted by the works in external warehouses, state agencies and ministries, boasts approximately 1500 paintings and more than 2000 items of decorative arts including furniture and objects from the former Industrial Artistic Museum.
The core of the collection is however represented by paintings that include several masterpieces especially dating from the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries. The collection, in which significant works by specific artists are often represented, dates back to the Thirteenth century; it includes, the icon coming from S. Maria in Campo Marzio and some Fourteenth century crucifixes, grotesque works of the Fifteenth century and the famous Madonna di Corneto Tarquinia by Filippo Lippi.

The core of the gallery is represented by the masterpieces which date from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries. The famous painting by Raffaello called the “Fornarina” deserves special mention besides the works by Andrea del Sarto, Beccafumi, Sodoma, Bronzino, Lotto, Tintoretto, Tiziano and El Greco. While Caravaggio’s Judith cutting off the head of Oloferne opens the superb itinerary of the Seventeenth century art which includes paintings by Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, Lanfranco, Bernini, Poussin, Pietro da Cortona, Gaulli and Maratta. The Eighteenth century is also very well represented. The paintings displayed by schools, offer a rather exhaustive view of the Italian art of that period that is complemented by an interesting group of French paintings coming from the Cervinara collection.

The final touch to complete the visit is the evocative apartment set up and furnished by Cornelia Costanza Barberini in the second half of the century using rare and precious decorations. This little jewel is the expression of the taste of that age and it also exhibits some of the most interesting decorative artworks which belong to the museum.

Address: Via delle Quattro Fontane, 13

Tue-Sun 8.30am-7.30pm

Closed Monday, 25 December, 1 January

The ticket office closes 30 minutes before closing time.

Telephone: 0039 06 4824184 - 06 4814591

Telephone: 06 32810 Prenotazione biglietti e percorso al Museo

Fax: 0039 06 4880560

Sito web:  Galleriaborghese

Price: Full: € 5.00 Reduced: € 3.00 Guided Visit: € 5.00 free under a 18 and over 65 anni UE

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The Museum has both documentary and educational value, in that the material on display is essentially made up of reproductions of xamples of classical archaeology which have either been lost or destroyed or of works, which have been pieced back together.

There are mainly moulds of statues, busts, inscriptions, reliefs and of life-size parts of buildings, of plastic models of monuments and architectonic complexes of Rome and of the provinces of the Roman Empire, as well as evidence of the so-called “material culture” such as furnishings, objects of domestic use and work tools.

The Museum is divided into 59 sections that cover a surface area of 13,000 square metres, for a wall development of 3 kilometres and a height of about 10 metres: such dimensions obviously make it possible to reconstruct, completely or partly, buildings and monuments of the ancient Roman world. The first fourteen rooms house an historical summary of the origins of Rome until VI century A.D., which includes a map that illustrates the progressive expansion of the Roman Empire, the portraits of emperors and illustrious men including Caesar, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Brutus, Pompeus, Cicero, and plastic models of numerous Augustan, Trajan, Severian and Aurelian monuments. There are moulds of inscriptions and early Christian reliefs and sarcophaghi including that in porphyry of Costantina, the daughter of emperor Constantine, that of urban prefect Giunio Basso and that of St. Ambrose on exhibit in the section dedicated to Christianity.

Among the numerous other sections that reconstruct Roman civilization in its varying aspects in detail, from public life to everyday life, there are those dedicated to the military sectors of the army and navy, that of the ports and provinces of the empire, a section dedicated to baths, aqueducts, nymphaea and reservoirs and a section illustrating theatres, amphitheatres, circuses and arenas with plastic models of the Colosseum and the Theatre of Marcello in Rome.

The complete series of moulds of the Trajan Column deserves a special mention, there are reliefs that illustrate the two military campaigns of the emperor Trajan against the Dacians (101-102 and 105-106 A.D.) and the plastic model of Rome (scale: 1:250; surface:200 metres squared), created by architect Italo Gismondi, which reproduces the city as it was presented at the time of the emperor Constantine, and it is reconstructed on the basis of results and research and excavation campagins carried out over the years.
It’s construction had started for the Augustan Exhibition of the Roman World in 1937, it was completed in the seventies and is a useful instrument in learning about the ancient city, in an interesting comparison with the aspects that the same presents today.

Address: Piazza Giovanni Agnelli, 10

Visiting Hours: Every day from 9 am to 2 pm. Sundays from 9 am to 1.30 pm.
Closed on

Mondays, Dec. 25, Jan. 1

Price: € 6,50; reduced € 4,50

Telephone:060608 Fax 06 5926135 - Internet: Museociviltaromana



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